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Last updated Aug 15, 2023

# PLAY Agenda

  1. Homepage
    1. Protopie Version
      1. Hero Section
      2. About - Animated?
      3. Our Work Marquee
    2. Go back to Figma
      1. Portfolio - videos should animate/play when hovered over
      2. Clients - should have a link
  2. Workpage
    1. Show peg: Pentagram (perfect since it accounts for a lot of works
    2. Redesigned CTA
    3. note: all the other pages (about, contact) have their own “main” secondary color
  3. Project Page
    1. Preview: masked image or gif/video?
      1. can also be thumbnail
    2. can change up teritary/accent color
  4. About
  5. Contact
  6. Note: other interactions (e.g. parallax, appear) will be done in webflow na

# Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Education

#EDUC101i #education #philosophy #history

# Critical Reflection Essay 2

# Draft

# Idea Dump
# Outline
# Draft 1
  1. Issue: The Philippines’ overreliance on labor export encourages the exploitation of its people.
    1. Effects:
      1. Individual de-skilling and national “brain drain”
      2. Questionable impacts on development
        1. The labor export policy traps Filipinos, and the Philippines economy as a whole, in underdevelopment and subservient neocolonialism.
      3. Aspects of culture
        1. Desire to support families and deep religosity
        2. The education system teaches them that their country is in bad shape, that they are suited for jobs abroad, and that the only way to a better life for them and their country is to leave and be exploited by foreigners.
      4. Distorted education priorities
        1. Global labor demands shape education to support outmigration by producing skilled and semi-skilled labour for overseas work.
        2. Education also devalues local knowledge and raises students’ dissatisfaction with local conditions, while the provision of knowledge of outside communities and raised expectations in life to suggest the inescapability of migrating outside of the community
        3. This is all anchored in “colonial roots, including the powerful symbols of democracy, education, and modernity implanted by the Americans”
    2. Sustained by colonial education
      1. Philippine education can be described as “colonial,” serving the interests of global powers and other foreign countries and employers.
        1. Even before labour export, local education fails to foster engaged, participatory notions of citizenship
  2. How was/is this problem dealt with?
    1. Constantino’s thesis: the growth and progress of the country lie in an emancipatory educational system.
      1. Cultivate counter-consciousness through critical pedagogy
    2. Past
      1. Renaissance
        1. Individual Humanism
          1. Aims:
            1. Liberal education
            2. Holistic development
            3. Individual excellence and personal self-realization
          2. Types: (counter saturation of foreign media by centering education around local media and values)
            1. Literary
            2. Aesthetic
            3. Moral
          3. Content: (what)
            1. Life of Past
            2. World of Emotions
            3. World of Nature
          4. Problem: Aristocratic; not accessible to everyone
            1. perpetuation of illustrado class
        2. Northern Humanism
          1. Aims:
            1. Social reform and improvement of human relationships
            2. Rich and full life of society as a whole
          2. Types:
            1. Moral and social ed
            2. Democratic
          3. Problem: ended up not being human-centered
      2. Reformation
        1. Protestant
          1. Broad & Rich Curriculum with Best Teaching Principles
            1. Liberalis > servilus
            2. Academic Freedom
        2. Catholic
          1. Their innovative teaching devices and methods fight against rote learning
        3. both sides used education as a weapon. both good and bad (used for indoctrination)
    3. Present
      1. The good
        1. Liberal arts universities
        2. NDMOs
      2. The bad
        1. The military and the government
          1. some officials of the country equate education to a narrow program of skills development, rote learning and even simple indoctrination.
  3. Reflection
    1. What are some personal insights that you can draw from the process?
      1. Questioning my conception of freedom…are we truly free?
    2. What are the benefits and limitations of reviewing the issue/trend’s historical underpinnings?
      1. Benefits
        1. Symptoms treater -> systems thinker
      2. Limitations
        1. Feels theoretical…honestly makes me feel powerless too. How can I take action from this when the problems are so deep? So pervasive?
    3. Looking into the future, what factors or forces might continue to affect the direction of the issue/trend?
      1. Globalization, Economy
        1. Education will always have to adapt to the demands of the market
        2. E.G. Situationer
          1. the emphasis on equity objectives should not be allowed to diminish the pursuit of training that serves cutting-edge technology given the changing labor market needs with the advent of the Fourth Industrial Revolution.
          2. Seeking employable skills and protection from labor market changes has encouraged college students and graduates to enroll in TVET.
            1. Those with college degrees and beyond may no longer aim for employment but to add competencies to their repertoire of skills to enhance their employability in the face of changes in the labor market and technologies.
            2. Become “future-proof”


# Writing

The Philippines’ best export is considered to be its people: Overseas Filipino Workers (OFWs). They are deemed modern-day heroes due to the impact of their overseas remittances. On a macro level, these help grow GDP, energizing the economy; on a micro level, these help ensure better lifestyles for their families. However, labor migration’s positive effects are short term; left in their wake are long-term problems for the country’s development, including: individual de-skilling, national “brain drain”, encouragement of endo (contractualization), and scarcity of local jobs. Overall, the Philippines’ labour export policy traps its citizens and economy in underdevelopment and subservient neocolonialism (Marasigan, 2022).

Behind this trap is the Philippines’ colonial education, which is designed to serve the interests of global powers and other foreign countries/employers. Through the use of English as the medium of instruction, the influx of duty-free cheap American goods, and the transplantation of Western institutions/ideas, Filipinos were trained to become the perfect labor force for the international market. But we have also become aliens to ourselves, disconnected from our identities and each other; this lack of nationalism has crippled us in many ways, from preventing critical thinking to barring democratic leadership (Constantino, 2010; Marasigan, 2022). Therefore, unlocking the Philippines’ potential for growth and progress lies in an emancipatory educational system; here, students and teachers alike are not only able to acknowledge and question their current realities, but also able to work towards better futures, free of society’s mental constraints.

This requires environments of critical inquiry This isn’t a new idea; for inspiration, we can take a look at the Renaissance and Reformation movements.

Constantino (2010) believed that the country’s potential for growth and progress lies in an emancipatory educational system. ==SENTENCE EXPOUNDING ON WHAT THIS LOOKS LIKE FOR STUDENTS.== This isn’t a new idea; for inspiration, we can take a look at the Renaissance and Reformation movements.

Similar to Constantino’s vision, the humanists of the Renaissance saw education as a way to bring out human beings’ full potential. This was driven by a new spirit of inquiry into knowledge, which was brought about by dissatisfaction with intellectually surpressive institutions. Italian humanists aimed to live rich and full lives through the harmonious development of the mind, body, and morals, along with the encouragement of individual excellence and personal self-realization. In line with these objectives, the main skill emphasized by Italian humanists was appreciation of the world. Their main types of education — literary and esthetic — exposed students to the literary, visual, and performing arts; meanwhile, their curriculum highlighted three aspects of life: the life of the past, the world of emotions, and the world of nature (Wilds & Lottich, 1961, pp. 161-166). I believe this humanities-centered approach can be used to create a nationalistic education; this builds strong foundations (a.k.a. knowledge of local culture and history) that make people less prone to the influence of foreign media. However, this is not enough. To assure national survival, education must “…produce a citizenry that [not only] appreciates and is conscious of its nationhood…[but also] has national goals for the betterment of the community [emphasis added]…not an anarchic mass of people who know how to take care of themselves only” (Constantino, 2010, p. 15). Italian humanist education fails to fulfill the latter objective due to its individualistic and aristocratic nature; it has self-centered aims, and is only available to a privileged few. Northern humanists fill this gap by aiming at a rich and full life for society as a whole; they thought that achieving a meaningful life required social and moral reform. This can be seen in their emphasis of religious, moral, and social education, much of which was grounded on classical and Biblical texts. They also worked to provide democratic education, believing that rich and full lives should be possible for the masses too (Wilds & Lottich, 1961, pp. 169-170).

Naturally, the Northern humanists’ zeal for social reform led to criticism of the church, which then propelled the Reformation era. After unjust societal systems were brought to light (e.g. oppressive political and economic conditions; religious and eccleiastical evils), the masses learned to question religion and other aspects of life; this gave them the freedom and power to decide their own fate, freeing them from being dependent on an educated upper class (Wilds & Lottich, 1961, pp. 178-179; National Geographic, 2017). We can trace this paradigm shift to one of the Reformers’ principles: Scripture Alone (sola Scriptura). It demanded that every person must be able to read and understand the Scripture on their own — which discouraged reliance on the church and clergy. This also entailed a need for every person to develop literacy and critical thinking, calling for a reformation of education. Reformers like Luther advocated for this by promoting human-centered ideas, such as universal education, along with broad and rich curriculums. These were based on humanist teaching principles: holistic development, inclusivity (shown by use of the vernacular), Academic Freedom. Luther believed that education must teach students how to contribute to society (liberalis study) instead of skills that simply keep them in servitude (servilus education) (Criss, 2017). To summarize, humanists and reformists alike would be against the Philippines’ colonial education due to its dehumanizing nature. By keeping the country subservient to global powers and other foreign countries/employers, it prevents Filipinos from living rich and full lives.

The influence of these past eras can still be seen in Philippine education. Humanists would be delighted to see the liberal arts education offered by most of our top universities. But they would be saddened to see that the humanities is currently fighting for its place in curricula: Philippine history was removed in high school, Filipino/Panitikan are no longer mandated subjects in college, and general education subjects were proposed to be removed from the tertiary level (Ignacio, 2019; Rey, 2019; Cahiles-Magkilat, 2022). Exacerbating this issue is a prevalent culture of anti-intellectualism, where most Filipinos tend to see high intelligence as a negative trait. This is rooted in longstanding colonialism and classism; it’s difficult for the (typically uneducated and poor) masses to empathize with the intelligent, especially when these people often become their oppressors (Madrazo-Sta. Romana, 2015). Meanwhile, similar to the Reformation, Philippines education is being utilized as a weapon of indoctrination. But instead of the church, I’d’ argue that it’s the state waging war. They want to teach Filipinos what to think, not how to think. Aside from the removal of the humanities, this is also exhibited by the reintroduction of mandatory ROTC and the authorization of police/military to enter campuses; these examples display officials’ limited conception of education as “…a narrow program of skills development, rote learning and even simple indoctrination” (Ofreneo, 2021). But we must remind ourselves that even the state is just a puppet — it’s the international powers that are pulling the strings. How can we claim we’re independent when our schools still nurture colonial mindsets? Because of these minds, we remain enslaved laborers.

The main insight I drew from this process is that Filipinos are deeply embedded in intersecting systems of oppression, particularly capitalism and colonization, which leads to all the various ways we experience domination (Collins, 2000). Thus, solutions that do not acknowledge these underlying systems are likely to be ineffective in the long-term; for instance, measures upholding OFW rights is not enough to stop brain drain. Related to this, reviewing history is helpful for becoming a systems thinker. As a designer, I want to ensure that the solutions I come up with aim to not just treat surface symptoms, but also tackle root causes. However, I admit that this process makes me feel helpless too; seeing how deep and pervasive problems can get makes me wonder if there is actually anything impactful that I can do, especially when it comes to macro forces like the economy.

# Sources